There's lots of different things happening in your bug report. Tons of errors in /var/log/messages about mismatches between 177.80->177.82, then 177.82->180.22. /proc/driver/nvidia/version also says you're using the kernel module from 177.82. The only Xorg config file I see in your bug report is xorg.conf.failsafe, which is configured to use the vesa driver.
I don't see anything in the log about failing to initialize the nvidia driver, but there is a message in the Xorg.0.log:
(EE) Failed to initialize GLX extension (Compatible NVIDIA X driver not found)
I suggest you clean up your system and decide which way you want to go - Ubuntu's drivers or NVIDIA's drivers, then stick with one. I think the 180.x drivers are mostly beneficial for the GeForce 8 and beyond, so you may just want to stay with Ubuntu's drivers. Copy /etc/X11/xorg.conf.failsafe to /etc/X11/xorg.conf, change the Driver to nvidia, and start up X.