For me this sounds exactly like a hardware problem.
Reason: It does happen on different OSes and drivers, only common fact is "it's a 460". So it's likely related to this fact.
It may be only occuring if the GPU does get some load, which will most likely not happen with noveau. Did you try some stress tests?
Furmark does run with wine under linux. Even better is the GPU test from OCCT (http://www.ocbase.com/perestroika_en/
), which able to count errors on your GPU.