For those who are capable of installing Cuda Toolkit 4 on their systems and compiling some code, here is my repo@github where you may fetch source code for cudart32_40_17.dll.so: https://github.com/lexa2/wine-cuda
This is Wine built-in DLL that should be compiled with winelib and it actually is a simple wrapper that redirects calls from the windows app under Wine to the libcudart.so.4.
Compile it with winegcc and install resulting cudart32_40_17.dll.so to one of this locations:
1. $PREFIX/lib/wine, where $PREFIX is your Wine installation prefix. In case you use Wine supplied with your favorite distro, most probably this folder is /usr, thus Wine libdir is /usr/lib/wine. Then use winecfg to set dll override for cudart32_40_17 to "Builtin only".
2. Copy cudart32_40_17.dll.so to $WINEPREFIX/drive_c/windows/system32 and made there a symlink to this lib named cudart32_40_17.dll. $WINEPREFIX is a location where Wine does store it's data files including folder structure for emulated drive "C:". Then head into RAGE installation folder and remove cudart32_40_17.dll from there (make sure to create a backup copy so it would be easy to fix the things if something would went wrong).
Having done the above and having Cuda-capable nVIDIA GPU installed on your system you should get "Cuda transcoding" option appear at "Video options" menu next time you start up RAGE.
There is a known bug in RAGE that Cuda is not being used in after you start up the game unless you open up "Video options" menu, set "Cuda transcoding" to off, Apply the settings and then open up settings menu again and set "Cuda transcoding" back to on.
Contact me on github or here in case there would be some troubles compiling, installing or using this wrapper, I would try to help in case I would have enough spare time.
P.S. Not sure if this thread belongs to this section of forums, but as it is linux-related I decided to post it here.