I re-compiled glibc with this patch http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patc...-fixes-1.patch
, and nvidia-settings is no longer crashing.
After googling a lot, it appears this is a known issue, and nvidia-settings isn't the only affected application. However, no fixes has appeared upstream yet (at least not in the 2.14 branch). So, I'm not sure if this is considered a bug or a "feature" (i.e. an application bug) from the glibc devs' perspective.