That is very wierd. What about your PSU? Are you still using it? If so, I'm wondering if it were the motherboard. I mean, power comes from the PSU to the motherboard, from their the mobo disperses it to the rest of the components so if something were off with the voltage regulation of the mobo I could see all sorts of components getting damaged.
Either way I'm betting all of those parts are still under warranty. I'd test each one to find what'g damaged and what isn't, and then send the damaged parts out under warranty. When you get the new parts back you could have a killer second rig, or sell off the parts to help cover the cost of the mobo and CPU you just purchased.
Really sucks man, been there when you said it's stressful not being able to figure out what happened. Especially when it just doesn't make sense. Only thing I could figure, if your PSU is still working fine, is that something was off with the motherboard's voltage regulation.
Hope you get it sorted quickly and with little hassle though.