Re: On Linux boot I get a init-2.05 prompt
Yes, init and telinit are both in /sbin, but they might not be in the path your system looks for executables. So type either /sbin/init or ./init from the sbin directory.
I don't about the /tmp message... sounds like your system is damaged somehow (it happens). Backup your important data because if your linux is screwed you may need to do a reinstall. Or it could be because windows has taken over your master boot record... got to hate that.